Cover Image Book

The Mediterranean and the mediterranean world in the age of Philip II : v.2. Volume II /

Format: Book
Language: English
Published: New York, : Harper & Row, 1978.
Related Items: Contained in: The Mediterranean and the mediterranean world in the age of Philip II
Table of Contents:
  • Collective destinies and general trends
  • Economies : the measure of the century
  • Distance, the first enemy
  • For letter-writers: the time lost in coming and going
  • The dimensions of the sea : some record crossings
  • Average speeds
  • Letters : a special case
  • News, a luxury commodity
  • Present-day comparisons
  • Empires and distance
  • The three missions of Claude du Bourg (1576 and 1577)
  • Distance and the economy
  • Fairs, the supplementary network of economic life
  • Local economies
  • The quadrilateral : Genoa, Milan, Venice, and Florence
  • How many people?
  • A world of 60 or 70 million people
  • Mediterranean waste lands
  • A population increase of 100 per cent?
  • Levels and indices
  • Reservations and conclusions
  • Confirmations and suggestions
  • Some certainties
  • Another indicator : migration
  • Is it possible to construct a model of the Mediterranean economy?
  • Agriculture, the major industry
  • An industrial balance sheet
  • The putting-out or ’Verlag’ system and the rise of urban industry
  • The system prospered
  • An itinerant labour force
  • General and local trends
  • The volume of commercial transactions
  • The significance and limitations of long distance trade
  • Capitalist concentrations
  • The total tonnage of Mediterranean shipping
  • Overland transport
  • The state: the principal entrepreneur of the century
  • Precious metals and the monetary economy
  • Was one fifth of the population in great poverty?
  • A provisional classification
  • Food, a poor guide : officially rations were always adequate
  • Can our calculations be checked?
  • ^^
  • Economies : precious metals, money, and prices
  • The Mediterraneon and the Gold of the Sudan
  • The flow of precious metals towards the east Sudanese gold : early history
  • The Portuguese in Guinea: gold continues to arrive in the Mediterranean
  • The gold trade and the general economic situation
  • Sudanese gold in North Africa
  • American sliver
  • American and Spanish treasure
  • American treasure takes the road to Antwerp
  • The French detour
  • The great route from Barcelona to Genoa and the second cycle of American treasure
  • The Mediterranean invaded by Spanish coins
  • Italy, the victim of ’la moneda larga’
  • The age of the Genoese
  • The Piacenza fairs
  • The reign of paper
  • From the last state bankruptcy under Philip II to the first under Philip III
  • The rise in prices
  • Contemporary complaints
  • Was American treasure responsible?
  • Some arguments for and against American responsibility wages
  • Income from land
  • Banks and inflation
  • The ’industrialists’
  • States and the price rise
  • The dwindling of American treasure
  • Devalued currency and false currency
  • Three ages of metal
  • Economies : trade and transport
  • The pepper trade
  • Mediterranean revenge : the prosperity of the Red Sea after 1550
  • Routes taken by the Levant trade
  • The revival of the Portuguese pepper trade
  • Portuguese pepper : deals and projects
  • Portuguese pepper is offered to Venice
  • The Welser and Fugger contract : 1586-1591
  • The survival of the Levantine spice routes
  • Possible explanations
  • Equilibrium and crisis in the Mediterranean gain trade
  • The cereals
  • Some rules of the grain trade
  • The grain trade and the shipping routes
  • ^^
  • Ports and countries that exported grain
  • Eastern grain
  • Equilibrium, crisis, and vicissitudes in the grain trade
  • The first crises : northern grain at Lisbon and Seville
  • The Turkish wheat boom : 1548-1564
  • Eating home-produced bread : Italy’s situation between 1564 and 1590
  • The last crisis : imports from the north after 1500
  • Sicily : still the grain store of the Mediterranean
  • On grain cries
  • Trade and transport : The sailing ships of the Atlantic
  • Before 1550 : the first arrivals
  • Basque, Biscayan, and even Galician ships
  • The Portuguese
  • Normans and Bretons
  • Flemish ships
  • The first English sailing ships
  • The period of prosperity (1511-1534)
  • From 1550 to 1573 : the Mediterranean left to Mediterranean ships
  • The return of the English in 1572-1573
  • Anglo-Turkish negotiations : 1578-1583
  • The success of English shipping
  • The situation at the end of the century
  • The arrival of the Hansards and the Dutch
  • From grain to spices : The Dutch conquer the Mediterranean
  • How the Dutch took Seville after 1570 without firing a shot
  • New Christians in the Mediterranean.